Read e-book online A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America PDF

By Sheri Williamson

ISBN-10: 0618024956

ISBN-13: 9780618024957

ISBN-10: 0618024964

ISBN-13: 9780618024964

Это наиболее детальный определитель колибри, характеризующий 31 североамериканский вид и снабженный 250 цветными фотографиями и 33 картами. Во вводной главе изложена естественная история колибри, способы их привлечения и кормления, а также места в США и Канаде, наиболее удобные для наблюдения колибри. На 31 цветной вкладке приведены иллюстрации 28 видов, 7 гибридных комбинаций, three формы альбиносов и four вида бабочек-бражников, часто принимаемых за колибри. Описание видов включает информацию о песнях и сигналах, шорохе крыльев, сходных видах, поведении, местообитаниях, распространении, систематике, охранном статусе. Для некоторых распространенных мигрирующих видов приведены даты ожидаемого весеннего прилета.
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They will fill again on the new side as the boat bears away from the wind onto the new tack. ● Jib control Release the old jib sheet and pull in the new one as the jib blows across to the new side. 51). It continues as the stern turns through the wind. ● Sails The sails, especially the mainsail, swing across the boat faster and more violently than when tacking. ● Mainsail control Pull in the mainsail before the jibe to limit how far it can swing, then let it out again after the jibe. PORT OR STARBOARD—WHICH TACK AM I ON?

Ease both slightly to introduce more twist and pull them in to reduce twist. 48 SAILING BASICS Winches and clutches Winches are used to control sails which produce loads larger than the crew can manage by hand. Most modern yachts have self-tailing winches that allow one-person operation. ” WHAT ARE WINCHES? ● Large loads A winch allows you to control large loads. There are two types of winch—manual and power-assisted. ● Self-tailing In a manual selftailing winch, turning the drum with a handle placed into a slot on top of the drum increases the power applied to the rope.

Apply more halyard tension as the wind increases. This prevents the fullness in the sail moving back towards the leech, which causes the boat to slow down and heel more. ● Jib halyard Adjust the halyard tension to remove any horizontal creases running from the luff. The halyard should be tighter in strong winds and eased slightly in light winds to maintain the correct shape in the sail. FLATTENING THE MAINSAIL ● Cunningham This control is fitted on some boats. It pulls a cringle (eyelet) in the luff of the sail down towards the boom and helps flatten the sail in stronger winds and twist the leech off at the top, which reduces heeling.

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A Field Guide to Hummingbirds of North America by Sheri Williamson


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