By Walter Rüegg
This is often the ultimate quantity in a four-part sequence masking the improvement of the collage in Europe (east and west) from its origins to the current day, concentrating on a couple of significant issues seen from a ecu point of view. The originality of the sequence lies in its comparative, interdisciplinary, collaborative and transnational nature. It bargains additionally with the content material of what used to be taught on the universities, yet its major objective is an appreciation of the function and buildings of the schools as obvious opposed to a backdrop of adjusting stipulations, principles and values. This quantity bargains with the reconstruction and epoch-making growth of upper schooling after 1945, which ended in the triumph of recent technology. It lines the advance of the connection among universities and nationwide states, academics and scholars, their targets and political actions. unique recognition is paid to primary adjustments within the content material of training on the universities
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Additional info for A History of the University in Europe: Volume 4, Universities since 1945
The very first universities, therefore, invented founders from the distant past. In Paris it was Charlemagne, in Oxford, the English king Alfred the Great. 2 Later foundations authorized by popes, emperors or kings followed the model of one of the two oldest universities founded around 1200, that is, either Paris or Bologna. They only differed in the way they were administered through their scholars, or masters, and in the number of their faculties. Gradually the state university emerged, with its four faculties: the ‘arts’ or philosophical faculty, offering a general education in the artes liberales and in philosophy, and the three higher faculties, which provided the academic basis for a career as a theologian, lawyer or doctor.
On the one hand, they could take only a relatively small number of the new students, and those rejected turned to the universities. On the other hand, many intermediary institutions applied for and received the status of universities with the right to do fundamental research and grant doctorates. Many of the more than 600 new universities founded between 20 Themes 1945 and 1995 developed out of such intermediary institutions. The university status did not raise their capacity and was irrelevant for the problem of the mass universities.
What today would be deplored as high rates of non-completion was the norm in the medieval period. Most of those entering the university left without taking an expensive examination. In their self-determined period of study they gained the intellectual skills that would allow them to prosper without an academic qualification in areas increasingly dominated by the ability to deal with the exchange of money and letters. An Italian city administration, for example, accepted the possession of the Corpus iuris as a qualification for the post of judge.
A History of the University in Europe: Volume 4, Universities since 1945 by Walter Rüegg