By M. Y. Han

ISBN-10: 9812560343

ISBN-13: 9789812560346

Offers the basic points of relativistic quantum box concept with minimum use of arithmetic. It covers the advance of quantum box concept from the unique quantization of electromagnetic box to the gauge box thought of interactions between quarks and leptons.

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**Additional info for A story of light: a short introduction to quantum field theory of quarks and leptons**

**Example text**

The process of going from a second-order expression to a ﬁrstorder one is a matter of factorization and let us dwell on this matter here. The simplest algebraic factorization is, of course, the factorization of x2 − y 2 : x2 − y 2 = (x + y)(x − y). September 23, 2004 10:11 WSPC/SPI-B241: A Story of Light 30 chap05 A Story of Light Factorization of x2 + y 2 , however, cannot be done in terms of real numbers but needs the help of complex numbers: x2 + y 2 = (x + iy)(x − iy). Factorization of a three-term expression such as x2 + y 2 + z 2 requires much more than just numbers, real or complex; and we must rely on matrices.

This concept of particles would then go through a radical change within the framework of quantum ﬁeld theory. One might notice at this point as to why not a single word has been mentioned of the wave equations for electromagnetic ﬁelds, which would lead to the equation for photons, the equation that along with the Dirac equation for fundamental fermions completes the founding pillars of quantum ﬁeld theory. It has not been included up to this point for a very good reason: the wave equation for the electromagnetic ﬁeld is an equation not of quantum mechanics but of classical physics.

This point needs to be repeated: When a classical ﬁeld is quantized (in the manner as will be discussed in the next chapter), the quanta of the ﬁeld are the particles represented by the classical ﬁeld equation. This relationship between the classical electromagnetic ﬁeld and photons, the discreet energy quanta of the radiation ﬁeld that correspond to particles of light with no mass, provided an entirely new insight into the interpretation of particles. The concept of particles would then go through another fundamental evolution, from that of quantum-mechanical wave–particle duality to that of the quanta of a quantized ﬁeld.

### A story of light: a short introduction to quantum field theory of quarks and leptons by M. Y. Han

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